The Musée des beaux-arts de La Chaux-de-Fonds was founded in 1870. Its current home was designed by the architect René Chapallaz and the artist Charles L'Eplattenier and inaugurated in 1926. The art deco style museum building is classified as a historical monument.
The two-storey building with its polychrome facade follows a small hill from west to east. The relief above the museum entrance is entitled "Pégase ou Le Génie des Arts" and was created by Charles l'Eplattenier.
The mosaics in the entrance hall with its monumental staircase were created by Charles Humbert in 1929.
Between 1990 and 1993 the museum was renovated and extended underground according to the plans of Georges-Jacques Haefeli.